Bloom’s Taxonomy (Bloom)

Bloom’s Taxonomy is a model that is a hierarchy — a way to classify thinking according to six cognitive levels of complexity.


  • Benjamin S. Bloom (1913-1999)

Key Concepts

Bloom’s model consists of six levels, with the three lower levels (knowledge, comprehension, and application) being more basic than the higher levels (analysis, synthesis, and evaluation)[1]. Some think of the levels as a stairway, in which learners are encouraged to achieve a higher level of thinking. If a student has mastered a higher level, then he or she is considered to have mastered the levels below.

Bloom’s model has been updated to account for 21st century needs[2]. The old model and new model are depicted below.

Old Model


New Model


Additional Resources and References


  1. Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals.
  2. Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., & Bloom, B. S. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. Allyn & Bacon.