Plagiarism is a serious problem in education. The good news is that it is easy to detect and avoid. Read our guide to learn more about the issue and our recommended tools for both teachers and students. What is Plagiarism? It can be defined as the use of other peoples’ ideas, concepts, words without giving […]
As an educator, sometimes you need a good icebreaker for the beginning of the semester to help improve classroom dynamics. We wanted to share our recommendations! Our favorite resource comes from our good friends over at Icebreakers.Ws. They’ve collected over one hundred of the best icebreakers and team building activities (wow!). The best part is […]
The Dunning-Krueger Effect is a cognitive bias that provides people with limited competence the illusion that they are better than they actually are; in other words, people naturally overestimate their own lack of ability (one is blind to their own foolishness) in “Mount Stupid.” Originators: Social psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger (1999) Summary: A […]
Summary: Confirmation bias is a cognitive error that people make when they are only willing to accept new information when it confirms what they already believe (i.e., aligns with their existing beliefs and values). People who fall into the trap of confirmation bias tend to purposefully seek out evidence that supports already solidified beliefs and […]
Summary: Situated Learning Theory posits that learning is unintentional and situated within authentic activity, context, and culture.
Originator: Jean Lave
Key Terms: Legitimate Peripheral Participation (LPP), Cognitive Apprenticeship
Situated Learning Theory (Lave)
In contrast with most classroom learning activities that involve abstract knowledge which is and out of context, Lave argues that learning is situated; that is, as it normally occurs, learning is embedded within activity, context and culture. It is also usually unintentional rather than deliberate. Lave and Wenger (1991) call this a process of “legitimate peripheral participation.”
Knowledge needs to be presented in authentic contexts — settings and situations that would normally involve that knowledge. Social interaction and collaboration are essential components of situated learning — learners become involved in a “community of practice” which embodies certain beliefs and behaviors to be acquired. As the beginner or novice moves from the periphery of a community to its center, he or she becomes more active and engaged within the culture and eventually assumes the role of an expert.
Other researchers have further developed Situated Learning theory. Brown, Collins & Duguid (1989) emphasize the idea of cognitive apprenticeship: “Cognitive apprenticeship supports learning in a domain by enabling students to acquire, develop and use cognitive tools in authentic domain activity. Learning, both outside and inside school, advances through collaborative social interaction and the social construction of knowledge.”
Summary: Stereotype threat is a phenomenon that occurs when people are at risk for living up to a negative stereotype about their group. For example, a woman may fail to reach her career goal of being a scientist because of how she changes her behavior in response to perceptions about her own gender. Originators: Claude […]
Summary: Positive psychology is the study of happiness, flourishing, and what makes life worth living. Seligman points to five factors as leading to well-being — positive emotion, engagement, relationships, meaning and purpose, and accomplishment. Originators and key contributors: Martin Seligman (1942-the present), American psychologist, founder of positive psychology Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (1934-the present), Hungarian-American psychologist, co-founder […]
Summary: Skills necessary for students to master in order for them to experience school and life success in an increasingly digital and connected age; includes digital literacy, traditional literacy, content knowledge, media literacy, and learning/innovation skills. Originators & Proponents: Groups – United States Department of Education, Partnership for 21st Century Skills, MacArthur Foundation; Individuals – Henry […]
Bloom’s Taxonomy is a model that is a hierarchy — a way to classify thinking according to six cognitive levels of complexity. Contents Contributors Key Concepts Resources and References Contributors Benjamin S. Bloom (1913-1999) Key Concepts Bloom’s model consists of six levels, with the three lower levels (knowledge, comprehension, and application) being more basic than […]