21st Century Skills (P21 and others)

Summary: Skills necessary for students to master in order for them to experience school and life success in an increasingly digital and connected age; includes digital literacy, traditional literacy, content knowledge, media literacy, and learning/innovation skills. Originators & Proponents: Groups – United States Department of Education, Partnership for 21st Century Skills, MacArthur Foundation; Individuals – Henry […]


Constructivism as a paradigm or worldview posits that learning is an active, constructive process. The learner is an information constructor. People actively construct or create their own subjective representations of objective reality. New information is linked to to prior knowledge, thus mental representations are subjective. Contents Contributors Key Concepts Resources and References Contributors Lev Semyonovich […]


The cognitivist paradigm essentially argues that the “black box” of the mind should be opened and understood. The learner is viewed as an information processor (like a computer). Contents Contributors Key Concepts Resources and References Contributors Marriner David Merill (1937 – ) Charles Reigeluth (1946 – ) Robert Mills Gagné (1916 – 2002) Jerome Bruner […]


Behaviorism is a worldview that operates on a principle of “stimulus-response.” All behavior caused by external stimuli (operant conditioning). All behavior can be explained without the need to consider internal mental states or consciousness[1]. Contents Contributors Key Concepts Resources and References Contributors John B. Watson Ivan Pavlov B.F. Skinner E. L. Thorndike Albert Bandura Key […]

Design-Based Research Methods (DBR)

Summary: Design-Based Research is a lens or set of analytical techniques that balances the positivist and interpretivist paradigms and attempts to bridge theory and practice in education. A blend of empirical educational research with the theory-driven design of learning environments, DBR is an important methodology for understanding how, when, and why educational innovations work in […]